Most modern women are well aware that the issue of their health is of paramount importance. You can take care of your athletic form, about proper nutrition, while simultaneously following simple recommendations that will help to keep your breasts healthy. It should be remembered that every woman is primarily responsible for her own health. The doctor can help you, but only on condition that you are focused on recovery.
The last two decades are characterized by a significant increase in breast diseases both in our country and in most economically developed countries. Every year thousands of women discover tumors in their mammary gland. Finding a tumor in oneself is always unsettling, no matter what kind of tumor it eventually turns out to be. There are a lot of questions: Is it cancer? Do I need an operation? Will I lose my chest?
Breast cancer is the most frequent oncological disease in women in the US and European countries, including in Russia. Tumor occurs in 11% of women during life, while the incidence continues to increase, increasing annually by 1.2%. Approximately 1 in 2,000 pregnant or lactating women also develop breast cancer. Breast cancer is also found in men, but quite rarely, less than 1 in every 180 cases.
This form of cancer is on the third place among all causes of death of the female population of Russia after diseases of the circulatory system and accidents in all age groups.
Fortunately, the majority of detected breast tumors – 80% are benign (not cancerous) and do not represent a serious medical problem. Thus, most women are not threatened with breast cancer during their lifetime. However, according to statistics, 1 in 9 women will develop breast cancer.
The only real way to successfully cure and reduce the mortality from breast cancer is now to identify tumors in the early stages and timely surgical treatment. Modern diagnostic technologies allow detecting malignant tumors at very early stages, when they are small and can be successfully cured.
You should know that:
Most of the tumors in the mammary gland are detected by women themselves.
Most of the detected breast tumors – 8 out of 10 are benign and do not threaten life. But you can not be sure of the nature of one or another neoplasm until you pass a survey from a specialist.
Malignant breast cancer can be cured in 9 out of 10 cases if it is diagnosed early enough. That is why early diagnosis of tumors is so important.
What is a breast tumor?
Tumor or neoplasm is a pathological proliferation of tissue consisting of qualitatively changed cells of the breast. The nature of the tumor must be determined in each case.
There are benign and malignant tumors.
Benign breast tumors
Painful breast engorgement several days before menstruation is, as a rule, a consequence of benign pathology – fibrocystic mastopathy. The opinion of the disgormonal nature of this pathology is shared by many scientists. These influences define complex interactions of ovarian hormones, adrenal cortex and pituitary gland.
Benign tumors grow by expanding surrounding tissues. They do not spread beyond the breast and do not affect other organs and tissues. Usually they are easily cured.
Benign tumors can have a different shape, consistency and size.
The cyst is a fluid-filled thin-walled tumor. It is usually defined as an elastic or tightly elastic, rounded form with clear boundaries.
Fibroadenoma is a tumor from connective tissue and glandular epithelium of the gland. To the touch of a tumor are like solid balls with clear boundaries, mobile and painless.
Intra-flow papilloma. In cystically enlarged large ducts, located near the nipple and behind the areola, papillomatous growths of the epithelium may occur. These formations cause spontaneous serous or spotting from the nipple.
Mastitis is the most frequent inflammatory process in the breast during lactation and feeding.
Malignant tumors of the mammary gland
The growth of malignant tumor cells is uncontrollable. These tumors need immediate treatment. With untimely diagnosis and treatment, rapidly growing cells of these tumors can grow outside the gland into surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body via blood and lymphatic vessels. Fixed there, they expand, forming new tumors – metastases.
The size of the tumor and the prevalence of the tumor process determine the stage of the disease (from I to IV), which in turn affects the choice of the type of treatment. Different stages require different treatment, and with a far-reaching process, the number of treatment options decreases. That is why it is so important to diagnose the tumor as early as possible, because treatment at early stages gives the best chance of successful cure.
What are your chances of developing breast cancer?
Just being a woman and raising the age puts you at risk for breast cancer. The risk of developing a tumor is individual and depends on a combination of exogenous and endogenous factors predisposing to its occurrence. If you have at least one of the following factors, you need to visit a mammalian physician more regularly.
Age. The older you are, the more likely it is. A sharp increase in the incidence is observed after 40 years, reaching a maximum of 65 years.
Accumulation of cases in the family; in the presence of disease in the mother, sisters, the risk of cancer increases.
First birth after 30 years.
Pre-existing breast disease.
An inherited form of cancer (5-10% of all cases), the cause of which is in the inherited mutation of a single gene. Some women are carriers of the newly discovered pathological BRCA1 and BRCA2 (breast cancer associated genes), which are associated with a high risk of developing this disease and is, according to the literature, 44-80% and 55-85% respectively. Among men – carriers of the gene BRCA2, this risk is 6%. In addition, a group of mutations of the p53 gene, also associated with a predisposition to breast cancer, have been identified.
At the present time, a number of factors are being studied in terms of their possible impact on the onset of breast diseases. These include: eating foods with excessive fat, alcohol abuse, and hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy for perimenopausal disorders.
How can you be sure that you do not have breast cancer or detect it at a very early stage?
No matter what your risk of developing the disease, it is important for every woman to make three simple, but quite accessible and effective actions that will take care of your breast health and reveal any pathology long before the onset of clinical symptoms. This monthly independent examination of the mammary glands, regular supervision of a specialist mammologist and the performance of mammography.
As the world experience shows, self-examination, mammography and professional examination of a specialist-mammologist – these are indispensable components for the timely detection of any pathology – at the stage when it can be successfully cured.
Learn to perform self-examination of the breast
The mammary glands of every woman are as individual as fingerprints. All women should learn to perform self-examination of the breast – this is the best way to self-identify any pathology in the gland.
The condition of the mammary glands is functionally associated with the genital area of the body. In different age periods of a woman’s life, glands have characteristic features of the structure, undergoing numerous specific changes, which are determined primarily by the functional state of her sexual sphere, the influence of ovarian hormones.
When you need to inspect the mammary glands?
Every month about the same days. Young women – a week after the end of menstruation.
IT IS IMPORTANT!
You should inform your doctor of any changes you have found. If you think you have found any pathology or discomfort, then the words “do not delay” should not cause you to panic, and you should immediately contact a specialist.
Symptomatic of diseases of the breast
Common symptoms of breast diseases are such as tension, pain, discharge from the nipple, changes in the skin of the breast area, as well as changes in the nipple and areola. In this case, complaints can be absent in the presence of a particular pathology of the breast.
Self-examination is desirable for all women, but this procedure can not replace a professional examination and consultation with a specialist mammologist.
Examination of mammary glands in a specialist
Observing yourself, you need to visit a mammalian once a year for a professional breast examination that will allow you to qualify your condition and give the necessary recommendations. Inspection from a specialist is your guarantee that you have not missed anything and have not looked through during your own monthly inspections.
For the examination, it is necessary to contact the mammalogist or oncologist-mammologist (the name of the specialty comes from the Latin word mamma – the mammary gland), which has special knowledge and training in the field of breast diseases, and not to doctors of other specialties who do not orientate themselves sufficiently in this pathology. The mammalogist of a specialized institution that has the necessary technical equipment will professionally inspect you, perform diagnostic procedures if necessary, and give medical advice.
Methods of diagnosis of breast tumors
The diagnostic methods used help the doctor determine the nature of the tumor. The examination also helps in choosing the optimal treatment for you. With mammography, breast cancer can be detected at a very early stage, when 9 cases out of 10 can be successfully cured.
Mammography is an x-ray study of the internal structure of the mammary glands performed on a special apparatus – a mammogram. This is the most informative, accessible and safe method that allows to identify the disease of the mammary glands, including tumors, at the earliest stages of development, even in cases where they can not yet be found during examination.
It is now recommended to begin regular mammography after 40 years. However, the results of most scientific studies indicate the need to perform mammography for women aged 40-49 years every 1-2 years. In the age group over 50 years, mammography is recommended to be performed annually. In women younger than 30, ultrasound is preferred; The exception is people with an increased risk of the disease.
In addition to the examination and mammography, there are a number of other refinement methods of research, which, if necessary, will appoint a doctor.
In the process of communication, you can be sure that breast tumors actually are not so rare.
Perhaps the most difficult moment is to know your diagnosis.
To select the optimal amount of treatment for you, you may need additional research.
If your tumor is benign – this is good news, but still you will need regular check-ups so as not to miss the emergence of new tumors.
When detecting a malignant tumor, women are now offered various treatment options, including breast-preserving operations (so-called organ-preserving) and reconstructive reconstructive plastic reconstructions. There are various options for surgical breast reconstruction, which can be used by most patients after complete removal of the breast – mastectomy due to the disease. Reconstructive plastic surgery allows you to recreate the volume and shape of the removed gland, the maximum corresponding to the second gland.
Depending on the type of tumor in the postoperative period, other types of therapy may be prescribed.
How to avoid breast diseases?
Despite the fact that the development of breast cancer is not yet completely preventable, it is quite possible to reduce the risk of developing this tumor. To do this, first of all, you must follow these preventive measures, lead a healthy lifestyle. Reducing the intake of animal fats and high-calorie foods, maintaining normal body weight, physical activity, eating fiber-rich foods, including coarse grains, and fruits and vegetables, will help you reduce the risk of developing a tumor.
Remember that the best way to maintain the health of your breasts and successfully heal is to identify the tumor at an early stage.
Do not forget about 3 steps on the path to health: it is regular self-examination and mammography, as well as supervision of a specialist mammologist.
In this case, early detection of the tumor and treatment performed at the initial stages of the disease, mean not only the safety of your breast, but also the salvation of your life!